Flavius Josephus (37-100)Flavius Josephus (37-100) - Jewish historian who was raised in a priestly family and became a pharisee at a young age. When Judea revolted against the Roman Empire in 66, Josephus took up the sword and joined the cause. In fact, he became a commander of the Jewish forces and led a contingent against the Romans in Galilee. However, he was forced to surrender at the Battle of Jotapata in 67 (which was later recounted by Josephus himself). It turned out to be the second bloodiest fight of the revolt after the Siege of Jerusalem itself. Josephus was taken prisoner by Vespasian, who commanded the Roman army (command was later taken over by his son, Titus, after Vespasian became emperor in 69). However, despite the circumstances of their meeting, this turned out to be of enormous benefit to Josephus. He returned to Rome and endeared himself to Vespasian to the point where he was adopted into the family, even taking the name "Flavius". After Vespasian became emperor, Josephus returned to Jerusalem and tried to convince the Jews to surrender in the face of overwhelming odds. He was unsuccessful, however, and the city was destroyed in 70. After that, he returned to Rome with Vespasian's son and future emperor, Titus. It was at this time that he began his writing career, which chronicled the history of his people. He wrote many significant works, including Wars of the Jews, which recounts the conflicts in which the Jews engaged from the Maccabean Revolt, until the fall of Jerusalem. He also wrote Anitquities of the Jews for the benefit of the gentile population, which was a history of the Jewish people, from their beginnings up to his time.