Second Opium War (1856-1860)Second Opium War (1856-1860) - Neither side was particularly satisfied with the terms that concluded the First Opium War; China lost, of course, so the Qing Dynasty was not at all happy.  And Great Britain wanted all China opened to foreign trade (the first war opened only five cities).  Plus the Chinese were constantly violating the terms of the Treaty of Nanking.  So a second war broke out 14 years after the conclusion of the first.  The fighting began in the same location, Canton (modern Guangzhou).  The British sought an alliance with France, the United States and even Russia.  China had executed French missionary, Auguste Chapdelaine, earlier in the year, so France quickly joined the war on England's side.  The United States played mostly a supporting role in the war, and Russia had almost no involvement.  Great Britain was delayed by the Sepoy Mutiny in India, but once that ended, it turned its attention to China.  In May 1858, a combined force of British and French troops captured Canton, and China quickly lost its appetite for further conflict.  The war concluded with the Treaty of Tientsin on terms largely favorable to the western powers.