Philistines capture the ArkPhilistines capture the Ark - "When the people came into the camp, the elders of Israel said, 'Why has the Lord defeated us today before the Philistines?  Let us take to ourselves from Shiloah the ark of the covenant of the Lord, that it may come among us and deliver us from the power of our enemies.'  So the people sent to Shiloh, and from there they carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord  of hosts who sits above the cherubim; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.  As the ark of the covenant of the Lord came into the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the earth resounded.  When the Philistines heard the noise of the shout, they said, 'What does the noise of the great shout in the camp of the Hebrews mean?'  Then they understood that the ark of the Lord had come into the camp.  The Philistines were afraid, for they said, 'God has come into the camp.'  And they said, 'Woe to us!  For nothing like this has happened before.  Woe to us!  Who shall deliver us from the hands of these mighty gods?  These are the gods who smote the Egyptians with all kinds of plagues in the wilderness.  Take courage and be men, O Philistines, or you will become slaves to the Hebrews, as they have been slaves to you; therefore, be men and fight.'  So the Philistines fought and Israel was defeated, and every man fled to his tent; and the slaughter was very great, for there fell of Israel thirty thousand foot soldiers.  The ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, died." (I Samuel 4:3-11, NASB)

However, after seven months, the Philistines returned the ark to Israel because it had toppled their god, Dagon, and afflicted their people with tumors. (I Samuel 5-6).